Prosthetics is a procedure by which dental crowns substitute natural teeth, which are weakened by large fillings or caries, or endodontically treated teeth, which have changed colour.
To create a crown or a bridge, the tooth must be ground into a so-called die, and endodontically treated teeth must be “strengthened” by creating an abutment. This procedure is performed under local anaesthesia. After grinding, we get a die – a newly formed tooth in the form of a cone with the widest part in the cervical region.
The bridge is a prosthetic therapeutic device that replaces one or more lost teeth by bridging the empty space between the abutment teeth. During the fabrication of the final replacement, we cement temporary crowns or bridges on the die, which are used by the patient until the completion of the permanent replacement. The crowns protect the tooth and its surrounding periodontal tissue, prevent ingrowth and tilting of the surrounding teeth into the empty space, and solve the problem of the aesthetic blemish. After an impression is taken in the laboratory, a permanent fixed prosthesis is fabricated.
In terms of materials and works in prosthetics, the following should be pointed out:
Metal – ceramic crowns and bridges and highly aesthetic metal-free replacements made with the CAD-CAM technology. The recent technology is based on 3D computer programs, which reduces the possibility of error. An important feature of the CAD-CAM technology is the use of new materials such as zirconium dioxide, milled titanium, and other new aesthetic ceramic materials. Dental crowns and bridges establish proper occlusion and chewing function by evenly distributing chewing pressure across the entire row of teeth and the underlying bone tissue.
Veneers – metal-free highly aesthetic restorations that do not require the grinding of the entire surface of the tooth and therefore provide uncompromising aesthetics to the front teeth. The front surface of the tooth is ground 0.5 mm to 0.75 mm.
Inlay-onlay – metal-free ceramic restorations that are used on the posterior teeth as an alternative to standard amalgam or composite fillings. An inlay is a cast, baked, pressed or milled filling that is placed in the prepared tooth-bearing area of the central part of the tooth, whereas cusps and other surfaces are not touched. An onlay is a slightly larger filling, which substitutes one or more cusps with corresponding dental surfaces. After taking an impression of the prepared cavity, the dental technician models the filling, imitating the colour and the natural look of the tooth. Materials for inlays or onlays have better mechanical properties than conventional white fillings, but in the end, the most important thing is that the patient receives a more permanent filling of the highest quality. All fixed prosthetic replacements cannot be removed from the mouth after permanent cementation. For this reason, we recommend additional maintenance of oral hygiene with a suitable dental floss, interdental toothbrush and dental shower.
Partial or complete dentures – fixed on implants or remaining teeth in the oral cavity by joint connections, telescopes or clasps. A denture is a therapeutic device used to treat the consequences of tooth loss, to restore lost chewing, aesthetic and phonation functions, and to carry out the prophylaxis of remaining teeth and edentulous ridge. A partial denture is indicated when a bridge, i.e. fixed construction, cannot be created due to the low number of abutment teeth, their unsuitable distribution i.e. excessive range, or because of the poor condition of the periodontal tissue. Regular visits to the dentist are equally important for a person with dentures as for people with natural teeth. Another significant notion is the maintenance, which requires the dentures to be removed from the mouth and cleaned after every meal, and stored in a glass of water or a denture cleaner during the night.